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Table 3 Unadjusted descriptive statistics on self-efficacy, pain self-efficacy, social support, and HADS scores for both groups

From: App-based intervention among adolescents with persistent pain: a pilot feasibility randomized controlled trial

Secondary outcomes Control group
Mean [SD]
Intervention group
Mean [SD]
Effect size
(Cohen’s d)
Self-efficacy
 Pre-intervention T0 13.9 [3.03] 13.0 [3.42] .22
 Post-intervention T1a 14.2 [3.02] 14.9 [3.59]
HADS-T
 T0 15.2 [6.14] 16.7 [6.58] .53
 T1a 15.0 [5.93] 11.7 [6.31]
HADS-A
 T0 6.3 [2.97] 6.7 [3.74] .02
 T1a 5.4 [3.25] 5.5 [3.91]
HADS-D
 T0 8.9 [3.86] 10.1 [4.14] .91
 T1a 9.6 [3.95] 6.2 [3.49]
Perceived social support
 T0 10.3 [2.80] 10.5 [3.24] .09
 T1b 10.2 [3.38] 10.5 [4.35]
Pain self-efficacy
 T0 44.4 [11.56] 41.3 [11.37] .32
 T1c 48.3 [8.50] 44.5 [14.12]
  1. aControl group n = 13, intervention group n = 17
  2. bControl group n = 12, intervention group n = 17
  3. cControl group n = 11, intervention group n = 17