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Table 2 Spatiotemporal data across groups

From: A feasibility study of objective outcome measures used in clinical trials of freezing of gait

  PD-control (no FOG) (n = 17) Freezers (FOG) (n = 16) p-value
  OFF ON    
Median (IQR) Mean difference control-OFF
95% CI
Effect size Median (IQR) Mean difference control-ON
95% CI
Effect size Median (IQR) Mean difference
OFF-ON
95% CI
Effect size Control vs OFF Control vs ON ON vs OFF (paired)
Dual task
 Velocity (m/s) 108.9 (95.7, 120.3) 39.9 (21.0, 58.8) 1.53 74.0 (52.8, 89.9) 12.1 (−3.1, 27.2) 0.57 95.0 (85.2, 114.3) −28.2 (−38.9, −17.5) 1.46 <0.001 0.19 <0.001
 Step length (R and L) (cm) 59.0 (52.4, 68.5) 20.9 (10.8, 31.1) 1.49 39.5 (29.6, 50.1) 5.6 (−3.6, 14.9) 0.43 51.9 (48.8, 58.4) −15.6 (−21.2, −10.0) 1.55 <0.01 0.14 <0.001
 Stride length (R and L) (cm) 117.9 (102.5, 136.7) 41.3 (21.0, 61.7) 1.47 79.2 (59.2, 100.2) 10.9 (−7.7, 29.6) 0.42 104.1 (96.1, 117.7) −31.3 (−42.6, −20.0) 1.54 <0.01 0.20 <0.001
 Step CV 4.5 (3.3, 5.9) −13.1 (−26.6, 0.3) 0.77 7.4 (5.4, 15.0) −2.1 (−4.1, 0.0) 0.81 6.0 (5.1, 8.7) 11.0 (−2.3, 24.3) 0.50 <0.01 0.08 <0.01
 Stride CV 3.2 (2.4, 5.0) −10.8 (−21.8, 0.3) 0.77 5.3 (4.2, 13.1) −1.4 (−3.2, 0.5) 0.59 3.9 (3.2, 5.6) 9.4 (−1.3, 20.2) 0.53 0.01 0.25 <0.01
 Time to turn (s) 5.0 (4.3, 5.7) −13.6 (−25.4, −1.8) 0.83 8.2 (6.2, 19.8) −1.2 (−2.4, 0.0) 0.71 5.5 (5.0, 6.5) 12.4 (−0.3, 25.0) 0.54 <0.01 0.08 <0.01
Single task
Velocity (m/s) 128.2 (114.0, 137.7) 36.3 (16.3, 56.4) 1.29 94.5 (67.4, 106.9) 12.8 (−2.8, 28.5) 0.58 111.2 (100.7, 131.8) −23.5 (−35.0, −12.0) 1.09 <0.01 0.10 <0.001
 Step length (R and L) (cm) 67.4 (58.6, 73.9) 16.2 (5.3, 27.1) 1.06 51.3 (39.1, 57.9) 4.6 (−4.9, 14.0) 0.34 61.2 (54.6, 64.8) −11.6 (−16.0, −7.3) 1.43 <0.01 0.40 <0.001
 Stride length R and L (cm) 135.3 (117.5, 148.1) 31.3 (9.6, 53.1) 1.02 103.0 (78.4, 116.1) 8.5 (−10.2, 27.1) 0.32 122.7 (109.4, 130.3) −22.9 (−31.8, −14.0) 1.37 <0.01 0.35 <0.001
 Step CV 3.9 (2.8, 4.2) −8.1 (−16.5, 0.4) 0.76 6.4 (5.4, 8.6) −0.8 (−2.1, 0.5) 0.46 4.0 (3.7, 4.7) 7.3 (−0.9, 15.5) 0.54 <0.01 0.33 <0.001
 Stride CV 2.8 (2.1, 3.3) −7.2 (−15.1, 0.7) 0.73 5.0 (3.7, 7.8) −0.6 (−1.6, 0.4) 0.50 3.1 (2.7, 3.6) 6.6 (−1.3, 14.5) 0.51 <0.01 0.26 <0.001
 Time to turn (s) 4.4 (3.6, 4.8) −6.9 (−12.5, −1.3) 0.90 6.1 (4.8, 9.9) −0.9 (−2.0, 0.3) 0.54 4.9 (4.2, 5.4) 6.0 (0.6, 11.5) 0.61 <0.01 0.10 <0.01
Interference
 Velocity (m/s) −15.3 (−20.1, −8.9) 5.2 (−6.4, 16.9) 0.32 −14.8 (−36.9, −10.1) −0.8 (−8.1, 6.6) 0.07 −13.2 (−24.5, −8.1) −5.3 (−14.6, 4.1) 0.31 0.74 0.84 0.45
 Step length (R and L) (cm) −5.4 (−7.1, −3.8) 5.9 (1.3, 10.6) 0.93 −8.6 (−21.5, −6.3) 1.0 (−2.1, 4.2) 0.24 −7.2 (−10.9, −4.1) −4.4 (−8.4, −0.3) 0.60 <0.05 0.26 0.06
 Stride length R and L (cm) −11.0 (−14.1, −8.9) 12.7 (3.8, 21.7) 1.03 −17.3 (−43.6, −12.8) 2.5 (−3.3 − 8.3) 0.30 −14.0 (−21.4, −7.1) −9.2 (−17.6, −0.9) 0.61 <0.01 0.28 0.06
 Step CV 0.7 (−0.6, 2.7) −5.0 (−14.1, 4.0) 0.44 0.6 (−0.1, 1.6) −1.3 (−2.7, 0.0) 0.79 2.1 (1.2, 3.2) 3.7 (−5.8, 13.2) 0.24 0.65 0.06 0.74
 Stride CV 0.9 (−0.9, 1.6) −3.6 (−10.5, 3.4) 0.41 0.7 (−0.3, 1.2) −0.7 (−1.9, 0.5) 0.48 1.1 (0.4, 1.9) 2.8 (−4.5, 10.2) 0.23 0.94 0.35 0.95
 Time to turn (s) 0.6 (0.2, 0.9) −6.7 (−13.6, 0.2) 0.70 2.1 (0.3, 5.6) −0.3 (−1.0, 0.3) 0.36 0.5 (0.2, 1.3) 6.3 (−1.6, 14.2) 0.44 0.08 0.58 0.17