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Table 4 Summarized results for pre-test (T0), post-test (T1), and gains (T1–T0) for psychosocial stress factors, mindfulness, emotion regulation factors, and maximal aerobic capacity

From: A 16-week aerobic exercise and mindfulness-based intervention on chronic psychosocial stress: a pilot and feasibility study

  T0: M (SD) T1: M (SD) Gain: M (SD) [95% CI] dpretest [95% CI] t p pR
Psychosocial stress
PSS-10 20.12 (7.56) 15.88 (4.54) −4.24 (7.01) [ −7.84,−0.63] −0.56[ −1.14,−0.06] −2.49 .024 .020
DASS-21 (S) 28.59 (6.07) 24.00 (5.87) −4.59 (4.17) [ −6.73,−2.44] −0.76[ −1.24,−0.52] −4.54 <.001 <.001
DASS-21 (A) 19.88 (4.82) 20.00 (6.60) 0.12 (4.55) [ −2.22,2.46] 0.02 [ −0.43,0.53] 0.11 .916 .789
DASS-21 (D) 23.76 (7.21) 19.76 (4.63) −4.00 (6.32) [ −7.25,−0.75] −0.56[ −0.98,−0.15] −2.61 .019 .015
WHO-5 54.35 (18.55) 64.00 (12.65) 9.65 (15.75) [1.55, 17.75] 0.52 [0.19, 1.02] 2.53 .023 .028
Mindfulness
MAAS 3.78 (0.70) 4.00 (0.66) 0.22 (0.75) [ −0.17,0.60] 0.31 [ −0.24,0.88] 1.18 .256 .225
Emotion regulation
ERQ-CR 4.31 (1.46) 5.18 (1.18) 0.86 (1.04) [0.33, 1.39] 0.59 [0.22, 1.15] 3.43 .003 .003
RRS-BR 11.00 (4.14) 9.59 (3.36) −1.41 (2.55) [ −2.72,−0.10] −0.34[ −0.75,−0.07] −2.28 .037 .051
PSWQ 50.12 (16.19) 43.94 (11.26) −6.18 (10.05) [ −11.34,−1.01] −0.38[ −0.78,−0.05] −2.53 .022 .012
Aerobic capacity
\(\dot {V}O_{2max}\) 45.34 (7.44) 45.58 (8.91) 0.25 (5.98) [ −2.83,3.32] 0.03 [ −0.51,0.42] 0.17 .868 .642
  1. Sampling units: N = 17 and observations = 34. Degrees of freedom for Student’s t test = 16. M mean, SD = standard deviation; CI = confidence interval; dpretest = Cohen’s d with pre-test standard deviation as standardizer; p = p value; pR = robust p value; PSS = Perceived Stress Scale; DASS-21 = Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (S = stress; A = anxiety; D = depression), WHO-5 = World Health Organization Wellbeing Index; MAAS = Mindful Attention Awareness Scale; ERQ-CR = cognitive reappraisal subscale of the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire; RRS-BR = brooding subscale of the Ruminative Responses Scale; PSWQ = Penn State Worry Questionnaire; \(\dot {V}O_{2max}\) = maximal aerobic capacity