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Table 7 Change in pain intensity pre-post phototherapy for aggregated, active phototherapy, and placebo control groups

From: Determining the feasibility of a trial to evaluate the effectiveness of phototherapy versus placebo at reducing pain during physical activity for people with knee osteoarthritis: a pilot randomized controlled trial 

Visit numbera Change in pain intensity pre-post phototherapy (0 to 10)
Aggregated Active phototherapy Placebo control
N Mean SD N Mean SD N Mean SD
Visit 2 19 − 0.84 1.17 9 − 0.56 0.88 10 − 1.10 1.37
Visit 3 18 − 0.83 1.34 9 − 0.67 1.32 9 − 1.00 1.41
Visit 5 15 − 0.80 1.37 8 − 1.13 1.73 7 − 0.43 0.79
Visit 6 15 − 0.20 1.08 8 0.13 1.25 7 − 0.57 0.79
Visit 7 15 − 0.33 0.49 8 − 0.13 0.35 7 − 0.57 0.53
Mean of means for Visits 2, 3, 5, 6, and 7 − 0.60 0.31 − 0.47 0.49 − 0.73 0.30
  1. aVisits 1, 4, and 8 did not include pre-post measures for pain intensity. On visits 1, 4, and 8, pain intensity was measused prior to the sensitivity to physical activity (SPA) test which resulted in an increase in pain intensity immediately prior to phototherapy for most participants. Thus, the results of visits 1, 4, and 8 could not be pooled with the results from the other visits