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Table 2 Results of pre-post changes in physical outcomes for the 11 participants

From: A single-arm feasibility study of community-delivered Baduanjin (Qigong practice of the eight Brocades) training for frail older adults

Outcomes Baseline (mean ± SD) Post training (mean ± SD) Mean of difference (Post vs baseline) Cohen’s d effect size Participants achieved better outcomes n (%)
Mean ± SD 95% CI %
Time Up and Go (s) 16.1 ± 5.2 13.8 ± 4.4 − 2.3 ± 2.9 [− 4.4, − 0.2] 14.3 − 0.47 7 (64)
Grip strength (kg) 16.8 ± 5.5 18.4 ± 5.8 1.6 ± 2.0 [0.2, 2.9] 9.5 0.28 8 (73)
Knee extension strength (kg) 14.5 ± 4.1 17.5 ± 4.3 2.9 ± 5.3 [− 0.6, 6.5] 20.2 0.69 6 (55)
PPA composite fall risk score 2.2 ± 1.4 1.5 ± 0.9 − 0.7 ± 1.4 [− 1.6, 0.3] 30.5 − .59 6 (55)
6-m fast gait speed (s) 1.2 ± 0.4 1.2 ± 0.4 0.0 ± 0.2 [− 0.2, 0.1] 1.0 − 0.06 3 (27)
30-s Sit-to-Stand test 12.3 ± 3.0 11.5 ± 3.7 − 0.7 ± 2.6 [− 2.5, 1.0] 5.9 − 0.22 5 (45)
Frailty score (Fried criteria) 1.5 ± 0.8 1.2 ± 0.4 − 0.4 ± 0.7 [− 0.8, 0.1] 24.0 − 0.56 3 (27)
Fall Efficacy Scale 28.8 ± 9.4 23.3 ± 6.2 − 5.4 ± 7.9 [− 10.8, − 0.2] 18.8 − 0.68 7 (64)
MQ score 15.0 ± 8.1 8.6 ± 5.6 − 6.6 ± 5.1 [− 9.8, − 2.9] 44.2 − 0.91 10 (91)
MoCA 22.5 ± 4.1 24.3 ± 4.8 1.8 ± 2.4 [0.2, 3.4] 8.1 0.41 9 (82)
GDS score 3.7 ± 3.5 2.2 ± 1.6 − 1.6 ± 2.4 [− 3.1, 0.1] 41.5 − 0.57 8 (73)
EQ-5D-5L Index score 0.7 ± 0.3 0.9 ± 0.2 0.2 ± 0.3 [0.0, 0.3] 21.9 0.66 5 (45)