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Table 4 Patient reported baseline characteristics

From: GLA:D® Back: group-based patient education integrated with exercises to support self-management of persistent back pain — feasibility of implementing standardised care by a course for clinicians

  Missing values, % of responders to baseline questionnaire
(n = 250)
Before-group (n = 84) After-group (n = 77) GLA:D Back group (n = 89)
Females, n (%) 1% 50 (60%) 49 (65%) 57 (65%)
Age, mean (SD) 0.4% 47.8 (13.7) 46.4 (15.5) 54.8 (13.4)
No qualification 6% 12 (16%) 13 (17%) 10 (12%)
Vocational training   22 (29%) 25 (33%) 20 (24%)
Higher education < 3 years   11 (15%) 12 (16%) 12 (14%)
Higher education > 3 years   30 (40%) 25 (33%) 42 (50%)
Ordinary work 2% 53 (65%) 47 (62%) 52 (59%)
Unemployed   4 (5%) 4 (5%) 0 (0%)
Rehabilitation   3 (4%) 5 (7%) 4 (5%)
Retired   13(16%) 11 (14%) 31 (30%)
Student/housewife/other   9 (11%) 9 (12%) 5 (6%)
Pain duration 1%    
 < 4 weeks   10 (12%) 15 (20%) 7 (8%)
 4–12 weeks   11 (13%) 14 (18%) 8 (9%)
 3–12 months   21 (25%) 19 (25%) 28 (32%)
 > 1 year   41 (49%) 28 (37%) 45 (51%)
Previous episodes 1%    
 0   19 (23%) 20 (26%) 22 (25%)
 1   23 (28%) 12 (16%) 14 (16%)
 2–3   17 (20%) 12 (16%) 15 (17%)
 > 3   24 (29%) 32 (42%) 37 (42%)
Time since treatment initiated 2%    
 < 2 weeks   18 (22%) 25 (33%) 12 (14%)
 2–4 weeks   13 (16%) 10 (13%) 15 (17%)
 > 4 weeks   52 (63%) 40 (53%) 60 (69%)
No. of health care visits for present LBP 2%    
 1   16 (19%) 19 (25%) 15 (17%)
 2–5   52 (63%) 45 (60%) 58 (67%)
 6–10   10 (12%) 7 (9%) 12 (14%)
 > 10   5 (6%) 4 (5%) 2 (2%)
Pain medication 1%    
 None   38 (46%) 40 (56%) 39 (44%)
 Over the counter   20 (24%) 15 (29%) 21 (24%)
 Prescription   24 (29%) 18 (24%) 29 (33%)
START Back risk 6%    
 Low [any of 9 items missing] 41 (55%) 38 (51%) 40 (46%)
 Medium   24 (32%) 22 (30%) 25 (29%)
 High   10 (13%) 14 (19%) 22 (25%)
Oswestry Disability Index, mean (SD) 1% [≥ 4 of 10 items missing] 20.6 (11.2) 21.0 (12.3) 25.1 (11.9)
Back pain (0–10) 1% 5.0 (2.2) 5.7 (2.3) 5.0 (2.1)
Leg pain (0–10) 1% 2.5 (2.5) 3.0 (2.8) 3.0 (2.6)
Sick leave last 3 months* 1%    
 0 days   41 (77%) 36 (77%) 36 (71%)
 1–14 days   10 (19%) 7 (15%) 10 (20%)
 > 15 days   2 (4%) 4 (9%) 5 (10%)
Illness perceptions, mean (SD) 2% [≥ 3 of 9 items missing] 39.9 (11.8) 41.1 (11.8) 42.1 (10.0)
Fear-avoidance beliefs, mean (SD) 5% [any of 4 items missing] 10.3 (5.9) 8.5 (5.9) 8.6 (5.9)
Mental wellbeing, mean (SD) 4% [any of 5 items missing] 70.7 (16.2) 72.5 (16.8) 71.9 (18.1)
Impaired social functioning 3% 11 (14%) 15 (20%) 24 (27%)
Back pain enablement 6% [any of 6 items missing] 40.4 (12.6) 41.5 (11.0) 39.5 (12.2)
Perceived physical fitness (0–40) 1% 18.7 (6.1) 20.4 (6.0) 17.7 (5.7)
Pain or restricted movement in forward bending 3% 49 (58%) 41 (58%) 60 (68%)
Seconds of trunk flexor endurance (0–120), mean (SD) 11% 52.6 (33.7) 55.5 (35.2) 49.1 (32.8)
Seconds of extensor endurance (0–180), mean (SD) 21% 76.8 (55.0) 88.6 (61.6) 71.9 (56.4)
Impaired straight leg raise test one or both sides 3% 28 (33%) 23 (32%) 27 (31%)
  1. Before-group participants recruited prior to implementation of GLA:D Back, after-group participants recruited after the implementation
  2. * Among those working