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Table 1 SDT techniques used during telephone consultations

From: Physical activity referral to cardiac rehabilitation, leisure centre or telephone-delivered consultations in post-surgical people with breast cancer: a mixed methods process evaluation

Autonomy: Use (range 0–14)
• Offering clear reasons to become more active? 10 (71%)
• Giving information to support decisions on different types of activity? 13 (93%)
• Give them a choice, and various options for being more active? 13 (93%)
• Encouraging enjoyment of PA by choosing activities that participants like doing. 12 (86%)
• Avoid coercion and persuasion? Encourage participant to make their own choices?
(e.g. avoid controlling language, rewards, threats, external evaluation, and deadlines).
13 (93%)
• Using neutral language?
(e.g. ‘may’ and ‘could’, and avoid ‘should’ or ‘must’).
14 (100%)
• Recognise barriers and conflicting feelings about wanting to be active. 12 (86%)
• Encouraging self-monitoring through use of pedometer (and other devices). 13 (93%)
• Encouraging setting time aside to include activity, and back up plans if this does not happen. 11 (78%)
Competence:
• Discuss issues around exercising safely 11 (78%)
• Individualised goals for ability, and treatments. 9 (64%)
• Providing non-judgemental and positive feedback on progress. 14 (100%)
• Focusing on participants’ strengths and celebrate even the small goals. 13 (93%)
• Give support on how best to achieve goals. 9 (64%)
• Working through pros and cons of being physically active during/after treatment for breast cancer. 8 (57%)
• Help with ideas to overcome barriers for those during or after treatment. 6 (43%)
• Make sure that not achieving goals does not become a negative. Use it to explore any barriers and/or concerns to help improve the following week. 8 (57%)
Relatedness:
• Value all opinions discussed. Do not judge progress by being negative or positive. 11 (78%)
• Acknowledging participants’ feelings and perspectives. 13 (93%)
• Giving positive feedback, such as their performance. Feedback must not make them feel they are being ‘tested’. 14 (100%)
• Help participants to indicate their reasons to change their activity levels. 7 (50%)
• Showing genuine appreciation and concern for participants by devoting time, energy and resources to support them to be physically active. 14 (100%)