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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of participants

From: Intensive therapy after botulinum toxin in adults with spasticity after stroke versus botulinum toxin alone or therapy alone: a pilot, feasibility randomized trial

Characteristics All n = 37 Group
Experimental group n = 12 Control group 1 n = 11 Control group 2 n = 14
Age (year), mean (SD) 59 (14) 62 (9) 58 (17) 58 (14)
Sex, n male (%) 26 (70) 9 (75) 7 (64) 10 (71)
Side of hemiplegia, n left (%) 23 (62) 9 (75) 6 (55) 8 (57)
Type of neurological condition, n (%)
 Stroke 33 (89) 11 (92) 10 (91) 12 (86)
 Multiple sclerosis 1 (3) 1 (8) 0 (0) 0 (0)
 Traumatic brain injury 3 (8) 0 (0) 1 (9) 2 (14)
Time post-stroke (mth), mean (SD) 50 (54) 36 (49) 80 (69) 38 (37)
Living situation, n in nursing home (%) 2 (5) 0 (0) 0 (0) 2 (14)
Spastic limb, n upper limb (%) 26 (70) 9 (75) 6 (55) 11 (79)
Goal Attainment Score, t-score mean (SD) 23 (0) 23 (0) 23 (0) 23 (0)
Spasticity (Mod Tardieu Scale 0–4), n (%)
 (2) Clear catch at a precise angle, interrupting the passive movement, followed by release 28 (76) 7 (58) 10 (91) 11 (79)
 (3) Fatigable clonus (10 s when maintaining pressure) occurring at a precise angle 7 (19) 4 (33) 0 (0) 3 (21)
 (4) Unfatigable clonus (> 10 s when maintaining pressure) occurring at a precise angle 2 (5) 1 (8) 1 (9) 0 (0)
Pain (EQ-5D), n (%)
 None 16 (43) 4 (33) 5 (45) 7 (50)
 Moderate 18 (49) 8 (67) 4 (36) 6 (43)
 Severe 3 (8) 0 (0) 2 (18) 1 (7)
Mobility (EQ-5D), n (%)
 No problems 5 (8) 2 (8) 2 (8) 1 (8)
 Some problems 29 (8) 9 (8) 9 (8) 11 (8)
 Severe problems 3 (8) 1 (8) 0 (8) 2 (8)
Quality of life (EQ-5D VAS, 0–100), mean (SD) 60 (21) 68 (22) 55 (24) 58 (17)
  1. Exp experimental group (botulinum toxin-A plus intensive therapy), Con 1 control group 1 (botulinum toxin-A only), Con 2 control group 2 (intensive therapy only)