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Table 8 Mean per participant costs by treatment arm over 8 weeks

From: Evaluating acupuncture and standard care for pregnant women with back pain: the EASE Back pilot randomised controlled trial (ISRCTN49955124)

Complete-case analysis SC SC+TA
n = 24
Mean £ (SD)
n = 27
Mean £ (SD)
Intervention in the trial 11.52 (43.2) 149.43 (71.14)
GP visit(s) 12.75 (29.8) 17.62 (39.3)
NHS midwife 6.25 (30.6) 16.66 (48.03)
Private midwife 0.00 (−) 3.55 (18.4)
NHS acupuncture 0.00 (−) 9.96 (51.76)
NHS physiotherapist 2.04 (10.0) 16.85 (69.2)
‘Other’ professionals in NHS 5.83 (28.6) 3.74 (19.43)
Prescriptions 1.76 (8.6) 0.54 (2.8)
‘Over the counter’ treatments 8.67 (14.3) 7.38 (21.7)
LBP related work absencea 98.36 (330.3) 258.86 (517.8)
LBP related reduced productivity 806.55 (769.58) 783.45 (762.7)
NHS/PSS cost 40.15 (90.78) 214.82 (191.92)
Incorporation of back pain-related healthcare resource use (n = 51)
 Healthcare cost, £b 48.82 (94.18) 225.77 (205.65)
Incorporation of back pain-related wider societal resource use (n = 51)
 Societal cost, £c 953.74 (921.14) 1268.08 (1207.24)
  1. Values are mean (sd) number of consultations/investigations unless stated otherwise.
  2. SC standard care, SC+TA standard care plus true acupuncture
  3. aIncludes both work absence due to LBP and work absence to attend treatment sessions
  4. bIncludes costs to the NHS, private health care costs and over-the-counter medication costs
  5. cIncludes healthcare costs and productivity related costs