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Table 5 Summary of treatments delivered

From: Evaluating acupuncture and standard care for pregnant women with back pain: the EASE Back pilot randomised controlled trial (ISRCTN49955124)

  Treatment arm
Standard care (n = 41) SC + true acupuncture (n = 42) SC + non-penetrating acupuncture (n = 41)
Participants
 Number of participants who booked appointment to see a physiotherapist 4 37 41
 Total number of participants who attended at least one treatment session with a physiotherapist 4 34 38
 Total number of participants who received acupuncture treatment 0 33 36
 Number of treatment sessions provided (per participant), median (IQR) 2 (1, 4) 6 (3, 7) 6 (6, 7)
Number of treatment sessions per participant (categorised), n (% of no. of participants seen)
 1–5 4 (100) 13 (38.2) 9 (23.7)
 6–8 0 (0.0) 17 (50.0) 27 (71.1)
 9–11 0 (0.0) 4 (11.8) 2 (5.3)
Number of treatments per participant in line with protocolsa, n (% of number of participants who attended at least one treatment session) 2 (50.0) 17 (50.4) 27 (71.1)
Treatment sessions: total number planned 13 240 273
Total number of treatment sessions provided (% of total planned) 9 (69.2) 189 (78.8) 224 (82.1)
Total number of sessions that were not attended—DNAs/UTAs (% of total planned) 4 (30.8) 51 (21.3) 49 (17.9)
Total number of sessions attended where acupuncture was provided, n (% of attended) 0 (0.0) 163 (86.2) 197 (87.9)
Pain severity after treatment (0–10), mean (SD) 6.0 (0.8) 1.9 (2.0) 2.3 (2.3)
Number (%) of participants who received the treatment at least once during the course of treatment for participants who attended at least one treatment session with a physiotherapist n = 4 n = 34 n = 38
Assessment/reassessment 4 (100.0) 34 (100.0) 38 (100.0)
Education and advice 4 (100.0) 34 (100.0) 38 (100.0)
Tubigrip provided with instruction 3 (75.0) 17 (50.0) (50.0) 19 (50.0)
Pelvic support belt provided with instruction 2 (50.0) 9 (26.5) 7 (18.4)
Heat therapy used in clinic 0 (0.0) 3 (8.8) 2 (5.3)
Massage therapy used in clinic 0 (0.0) 8 (23.5) 8 (21.05)
Manual therapy used in clinic 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 2 (5.3)
Supervised exercises in clinic 1 (25.0) 24 (70.6) 20 (52.6)
Home exercises given/reviewed 4 (100.0) 29 (85.3) 33 (86.8)
Issued walking aids 2 (50.0) 2 (5.9) 5 (13.2)
Number (%) of participants offered an exercise approach at least once during the course of treatment for participants who attended at least one treatment session with a physiotherapist n = 4 n = 34 n = 38
Transversus abdominus muscle strengthening 2 (50.0) 24 (70.6) 25 (65.8)
Pelvic floor muscle strengthening 2 (50.0) 19 (55.9) 21 (55.3)
Pelvic tilt exercise 3 (75.0) 26 (76.5) 21 (55.3)
Gluteal muscle strengthening 2 (50.0) 25 (73.5) 22 (57.9)
Lower back/pelvic stretching 1 (25.0) 15 (44.1) 10 (26.3)
Advice/signposting to general physical activity opportunities 2 (50.0) 8 (23.5) 12 (31.6)
Other exercisesb 1 (25.0) 13 (38.2) 15 (39.5)
  1. DNA did not attend, UTA unable to attend, SC standard care, TA true acupuncture, NPA non-penetrating acupuncture
  2. a2 to 4 sessions for SC, 6 to 8 for SC + acupuncture
  3. bOther exercises included advice on aquanatal classes, increase repetitions, correcting standing posture, gym ball exercise, thoracic rotation, lumbar spine extension, obliques exercises and reviewing exercises in the EASE Back booklet