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Table 3 Baseline characteristics of pilot trial participants

From: Evaluating acupuncture and standard care for pregnant women with back pain: the EASE Back pilot randomised controlled trial (ISRCTN49955124)

Baseline characteristics Standard care SC + true acupuncture SC + non-penetrating acupuncture
(n = 41) (n = 42) (n = 41)
Age (years), mean (SD) 27.8 (5.4) 28.1 (5.1) 29.0 (5.3)
Highest qualification: degree/postgraduate, n (%) 13 (31.7) 14 (33.3) 18 (43.9)
Gestation weeks at inclusion: 24+, n (%) 17 (41.5) 18 (42.9) 18 (42.9)
Married, n (%) 16 (39.0) 19 (45.2) 19 (46.3)
No. of children, n (%)
 0 16 (39.0) 20 (47.6) 14 (34.2)
 1 17 (41.5) 13 (31.0) 17 (41.5)
 2 or more 8 (19.5) 9 (21.4) 10 (24.4)
Working, n (%) 28 (68.3) 27 (64.3) 32 (78.1)
Physical demands of current/most recent paid job: heavy/very heavy, n (%) 12 (29.3) 13 (32.5) 11 (26.8)
Taken time off during the current pregnancy because of back paina, n (%) 8 (28.6) 9 (33.3) 15 (46.9)
Back pain interference with performance at work (0–10 NRS) a, b, mean (SD) 5.0 (2.5) 4.9 (2.6) 5.0 (3.1)
Work satisfaction (0–10 NRS)a, c, mean (SD) 6.6 (2.7) 5.4 (1.9) 6.6 (2.3)
Pain location (manikin), n (%)
 Low back pain only 7 (17.1) 9 (21.4) 7 (17.1)
 Low back pain with anterior PGP 8 (19.5) 6 (14.3) 4 (9.8)
 LBP with anterior PGP and pain elsewhere 10 (24.4) 14 (33.3) 12 (29.3)
 LBP and pain elsewhere 16 (39.0) 13 (31.0) 18 (43.9)
Duration of episode: >6 weeks, n (%) 23 (56.1) 20 (47.2) 25 (61.0)
Pain indexd, mean (SD) 4.5 (1.6) 4.5 (1.5) 4.6 (1.8)
Pain intensity before going to bed, mean (SD) 6.8 (1.9) 6.8 (1.8) 7.0 (2.2)
Woken up most/every night by pain, n (%) 16 (39.0) 15 (35.7) 17 (41.5)
Oswestry Disability Index (0–100)e, mean (SD) 34.8 (11.2) 32.9 (13.7) 35.7 (13.6)
Oswestry Disability Index (categorised), n (%)    
 Minimal disability (0–20%) 5 (12.2) 8 (19.0) 4 (9.8)
 Moderate disability (21–40%) 24 (58.5) 20 (47.6) 23 (56.1)
 Severe disability (40–60%) 12 (29.3) 13 (31.0) 11 (26.8)
 Crippledf (61–80%) 0 (0.0) 1 (2.4) 3 (7.3)
Pelvic Girdle Questionnaire (0–100)g, mean (SD)
 Total 56.9 (16.0) 48.7 (17.2) 54.2 (17.3)
 Activity subscale 54.6 (17.0) 46.7 (18.1) 52.7 (18.1)
 Symptom subscale 65.4 (17.1) 56.1 (17.2) 59.3 (19.9)
Pre-pregnancy BMI, n (%)
 Normal/underweight 16 (40.0) 19 (47.5) 12 (31.6)
 Overweight 8 (20.0) 11 (27.5) 17 (44.7)
 Obese/morbidly obese 16 (40.0) 10 (25.0) 9 (23.7)
Taking prescribed medication, n (%) 7 (17.1) 5 (11.9) 5 (12.2)
Treatment preferences: Yes, n (%) 10 (24.4) 8 (19.1) 10 (24.4)
SF12—PCS, mean (SD) 36.4 (7.6) 38.2 (8.0) 37.0 (9.7)
SF12—MCS, mean (SD) 46.6 (10.1) 44.7 (12.1) 48.1 (11.7)
Self-assessed P4 test: familiar pain produced or increased in lumbosacro-iliac areah, n (%) 25 (75.8) 26 (81.3) 22 (66.7)
Bridging with extension of leg: familiar pain produced or increased in lumbosacro-iliac areah, n (%) 25 (89.3) 24 (80) 23 (82.1)
Positive on both P4 test and bridging test, n (%) 17 (41.5) 21 (50.0) 16 (39.0)
  1. SF12-PCS Physical Component Scale, SF12-MCS SF12 Mental Component Scale (scales are based on a ‘normalised’ general population average of 50 with standard deviation of 10)
  2. aApplies to only those in paid job
  3. bHigher mean score implies more interference
  4. cHigher mean scores imply more satisfaction
  5. dMean of three numerical rating scale for least, usual and current pain
  6. eOswestry Disability Index has ten sections with scores ranging from 0 to 5 in each section, item scores are summed and transformed to yield a score of 0 to 100 where 100 is the worst possible score
  7. f‘Crippled’ is the term used in the original classification of the Oswestry Disability Questionnaire
  8. gPelvic Girdle Questionnaire—items are scored on a four-point scale, and item scores are summed and transformed to yield a score of 0 to 100 where 100 is the worst possible score
  9. hPercentage applies to those who were able to perform the test