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Table 2 Unadjusted descriptive statistics for pain and HRQOL for both groups

From: App-based intervention among adolescents with persistent pain: a pilot feasibility randomized controlled trial

Outcomes Control group
Mean [SD]
Intervention group
Mean [SD]
Effect size
(Cohen’s d)
Pain intensity
 Before intervention T0 5.5 [1.9] 5.4 [1.9] .08
 After intervention T1a 5.1 [1.65] 5.3 [2.45]
HRQOL
Physical well-being
  T0 50.0 [19.43] 41.6 [21.55] .16
  T1b 48.9 [17.56] 52.4 [25.56]
Psychological well-being
  T0 54.5 [20.4] 56.8 [23.1] .10
  T1b 63.9 [23.71] 65.9 [20.74]
Mood
  T0 61.6 [18.81] 55.4 [22.72] .07
  T1b 68.4 [16.98] 69.7 [20.05]
Self-perception
  T0 46.1 [22.64] 45.7 [23.04] .01
  T1b 56.8 [24.46] 56.5 [23.37]
Autonomy
  T0 61.6 [17.80] 56.6 [20.23] .14
  T1b 65.7 [15.67] 62.9 [24.05]
Parents’ relationship
  T0 61.2 [23.44] 68.1 [24.64] .23
  T1b 65.8 [28.92] 72.1 [26.18]
Social support
  T0 56.6 [23.69] 63.3 [18.40] .13
  T1b 66.7 [17.75] 69.1 [20.68]
School environment
  T0 52.7 [20.32] 55.0 [19.77] .49
  T1b 57.4 [28.50] 69.1 [16.74]
  1. aControl group n = 14, intervention group n = 19
  2. bControl group n = 14, intervention group n = 17