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Table 6 Within-subject changes over time (objective measures, T1, T2, T3)

From: Intelligent Physical Exercise Training (IPET) in the offshore wind industry: a feasibility study with an adjusted conceptual model

Variable Mean (SD) Mean difference [95%CI]
T1 T2 T3 T1-T2 Δ T2-T3 Δ T1-T3 Δ
BMI (kg/m2) 28.1 (4.2) 28 (4.1) 27.5 (3.9) −0.1 [0.2 to −0.4] −0.5 [−0.8 to −0.1] −0.6 [−1 to −0.2]
Systolic BP (mmHg) 148 (14) 140 (14) 138 (12) −8 [−16 to −1] −2 [−5 to 1] −10 [−17 to −3]
Diastolic BP (mmHg) 89 (11) 90 (10) 91 (9) 1 [−2 to 5] 1 [−2 to 3] 2 [−2 to 6]
Fat percentage (%) 23.7 (6.1) 23 (5.9) 22.4 (5.8) −0.6 [0.2 to −1.4] −0.7 [−1.2 to −0.1] −1.3 [−2.3 to −0.4]
Muscle mass (kg) 65.9 (7.1) 66.5 (7) 65.9 (6.5) 0.6 [0.8 to 1.2] −0.7 [−1.2 to −0.1] 0 [−0.7 to 0.7]
Waist/hip ratio 1 (0.06) 0.96 (0.07) 0.96 (0.07) −0.04 [−0.07 to −0.01] 0 [−0.03 to 0.03] −0.04 [−0.06 to −0.01]
VO2max (ml O2/kg/min) 38.6 (7.2) 44.1 (9) 45.8 (6.5) 5.4 [1.7 to 9.1] 1.7 [−1.4 to 4.7] 7.1 [4.6 to 9.6]
Handgrip strength (kg) 60 (8) - 61.2 (7.7) - - 1.2 [−1.9 to 4.2]
Shoulder strength (kg) - 29 (4.4) 29.6 (3.9) - 0.6 [−0.7 to 1.9] -
Side plank (s) - 83 (30) 87 (31) - 4.4 [−3.4 to 12.5] -
Finger-to-floor (cm) - + 1.2 (8.5) −0.4 (7.8)   −1.7 [−3.7 to 0.5] -
  1. N=22. Two WTs were excluded from the analysis because they did not have measurements from all time points (T1, T2, and T3). Some tests were not included in the T1 test battery because of limited time to conduct the tests. Handgrip strength is missing at T2 as the dynamometer failed. BP blood pressure