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Table 1 Inclusion and exclusion criteria

From: A mixed-methods feasibility study of a comorbidity-adapted exercise program for low back pain in older adults (COMEBACK): a protocol

Inclusion (satisfy all) Exclusion (satisfy any)
Aged 65 years or older Patients with radiculopathy, evidence of nerve root compromise, and/or intermittent neurogenic claudication
Non-specific low back pain (within the boundaries of the thoracolumbar junction to gluteal folds) of less than 3-month duration Patients with medically diagnosed fibromyalgia, a primary chronic pain conditiona, peripheral neuropathy
Diagnosis of at least one of the target comorbidities: coronary heart disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, obesity, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, and depression Diagnosis of serious pathology in the spine (such as fracture, malignancy or metastatic disease, cauda equina syndrome)
Bayliss measure of illness burden score of 3 or above for at least one of the target comorbidities Physiotherapy or chiropractic treatment for their low back pain in the last 3 months
Sufficient comprehension of the English language to understand exercise instructions Inability to participate in treatment, e.g. due to transport problems, or unable to mobilise independently
Patients with an unstable health condition or at risk of a serious adverse event as evaluated by a medical specialist
Patients with psychosis disorders, posttraumatic stress disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism, anorexia nervosa, and bulimia nervosa and patients with an abuse disorder
  1. aA primary chronic pain is defined as chronic pain that cannot directly be ascribed to any disease of structural injury[30, 31]