Skip to main content

Table 2 Key content summary of the patient education program

From: Improving management of needle distress during the journey to dialysis through psychological education and training—the INJECT study feasibility pilot protocol

Modules Learning outcomes
1. Introduction to needle distress − What is needle distress, the causes and how it can be experienced
- Basic concepts of CBT (cognitive, emotional and behavioural signs of distress)
- Ways people may cope with needle distress
- Link between distress and avoidance
− Self monitoring and why it is important
2. Relaxed breathing - Rationale and evidence for relaxation
- Practical exercise—the skill of relaxed breathing as a way of managing distress or anxiety
− Tips for practising/using relaxation
3. Visual imagery - The use of visual imagery for relaxation
- Guided visual imagery exercise
− Tips for practising/using visual imagery
4. Cognitive strategies - How thoughts, beliefs and attitudes influence our experience of distress or anxiety
- Guided mindfulness of thoughts exercise
− Cognitive strategies for managing unhelpful thoughts
5. Managing difficult emotions - Acceptance of distress and present moment awareness
- Practical exercise: guided mindfulness of emotions
- Helpful tips
− The use of virtual reality (VR) technology as a distraction (immersion into different environment)
6. Summary - Review of key strategies
- Preparing for slip-ups/setbacks
− Further support