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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of included studies

From: Design, analysis, and reporting of pilot studies in HIV: a systematic review and methodological study

Characteristics Statistic (n = 248)
Design, n (%)
 Randomized control trial 108 (43.5)
 Non-randomized trial 140 (56.5)
Intervention type, n (%)
 Pharmaceutical 21 (8.5)
 Non-pharmaceutical 227 (91.5)
Number of study sites, n (%)
 Single site 143 (57.7)
 Multiple sites 105 (42.3)
Region, n (%)
 Africa 71 (28.6)
 Americas 137 (55.2)
 Southeast Asia 11 (4.4)
 Europe 16 (6.5)
 Western Pacific 8 (3.2)
 Mixed region 5 (2)
Country income level, n (%)a
 High income 151 (60.9)
 Upper-middle income 37 (14.9)
 Lower-middle income 25 (10.1)
 Low income 33 (13.3)
 Mixed income 2 (0.8)
Qualitative methods, n (%) 75 (30.2)
Sample size: median (min, max) 40 (3, 8794)
Key population, n (%)
 Contain any key population 134 (54)
Specific key populations, n (%)
 Injection drug User 4 (1.6)
 MSM 20 (8.1)
 Incarcerated populations 0 (0)
 Commercial sex workers 1 (0.4)
 Pregnant women 11 (4.4)
 Children 5 (2)
 Youth 28 (11.3)
 Indigenous 0 (0)
 African, Caribbean, Black 77 (31)
 Women 24 (9.1)
 Transgender 3 (1.2)
Progression criteria prespecified, n (%) 5 (2)
Trial outcome, n (%)
 Proceed to larger study 65 (26.2)
 Do not proceed 183 (73.8)