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Table 4 Nutritional status, muscle strength, functional capacity, and quality of life measured at 30 and 60 days after discharge. The p-value in column 1 (read horizontally) is for paired data, and the p-value in column 4 and 7 is for unparied

From: Individual nutritional intervention for prevention of readmission among geriatric patients—a randomized controlled pilot trial

  30 days 60 days
Intervention, n = 15 Control, n = 15 p-value2 Intervention, n = 9 Control, n = 11 p-value2
Nutritional status
Weight development and maintained or increased weight
  kg, median (range) 74.7 (55.4–105.3) 74.0 (52.2–109.1) 0.54 74.9 (55.7–84.2) 74.5 (53.1–101.1) 0.66
   from baseline, kg, median (range) − 1.0 (− 4.6–3.0) 0.3 (− 4.9–7.1) 0.31 0.3 (− 3.3–3.3) − 0.6 (− 4.2–3.5) 0.33
  p-value1 0.082 0.732   0.882 0.772  
  Maintained/increased weight, n (%) 6 (40%) 8 (53%) 0.711 5 (56%) 4 (36%) 0.651
Achievement of ≥ 75% of energy requirement
  kJ/day, median (range) 7700 (5900–11,600) 5900 (4400–9900) 0.08 7600 (5700–11,900) 6500 (3100–10,200) 0.26
  Baseline ≥ 75% of requirements, n (%) 8 (53%) 7 (47%) > 0.991 5 (56%) 5 (47%) > 0.991
  ≥ 75% of requirements, n (%) 14 (93%) 7 (47%) 0.011 8 (89%) 6 (55%) 0.161
  p-value1 0.041 > 0.991   0.291 > 0.991  
Achievement of ≥ 75% of protein requirement
  g/day, median (range) 76 (57–107) 56 (42–106) 0.01 76 (49–81) 64 (42–113) 0.57
  Baseline ≥ 75% of requirements, n (%) 3 (20%) 5 (33%) 0.681 2 (22%) 4 (36%) 0.621
  ≥ 75% of requirement, n (%) 11 (73%) 6 (40%) 0.141 5 (56%) 2 (18%) 0.161
  p-value1 0.011 > 0.991   0.331 0.641  
Muscle strength
Change and increase in handgrip strength (HGS)
  kg, median (range) 20 (10–46) 24 (20–48) 0.63 20 (11–42) 22 (8–48) 0.56
   from baseline, kg, median (range) 2 (− 4–6) 2 (− 4–11) 0.52 1 (− 3–7) 3 (− 5–11) 0.38
  p-value1 0.202 0.062   0.262 0.052  
  Increased HGS, n (%) 8 (53%) 10 (67%) 0.711 6 (67%) 8 (73%) > 0.991
Change and increased in 30-s chair stand (30-SCS)a
  30-SCS (WOA), stand ups, median (range) 10 (5–11) 9 (4–14) 0.98 9 (5–13) 10.5 (2–15) 0.68
30-SCS (WA), stand ups, median (range) 5 (4–8) 8.5 (7–13) 0.11 7 (4–8) 6 (5–7) 0.90
  30-SCS from baseline, n (%) 11 (79%) 13 (93%) 0.601 8 (89%) 9 (90%) > 0.991
Functional capacity
Change in Functional Recovery Score (FRS)
  FRS, totalb 86 (31–100) 89 (33–100) 0.56 82 (43–100) 95 (50–100) 0.41
    FRS from baseline 1 (− 6–34) 2 (− 25–32) 0.55 3 (0–28) 2 (− 8–14) 0.59
   p-value1 0.162 0.062   0.022 0.082  
  P-ADL 44 (25–44) 44 (22–44) 0.35 41 (25–44) 44 (2–39) 0.12
    P-ADL from baseline 0 (− 3–17) 0 (− 17–11) 0.80 0 (− 6–8) 0 (− 17–5) 0.60
   p-value1 0.662 0.502   0.382 0.812  
  I-ADL 19 (6–23) 18 (2–23) 0.94 16 (4–23) 20 (3–23) 0.81
    I-ADL from baseline 1 (− 8–6) 0 (− 12–13) 0.64 2 (− 6–4) 0 (− 8–4) 0.24
   p-value1 0.262 0.702   0.302 0.832  
  Mobility 25 (0–33) 25 (8–33) 0.64 25 (0–33) 33 (17–33) 0.40
    Mobility from baseline 0 (0–17) 0 (0–17) 0.55 0 (0–17) 0 (0–17) 0.53
   p-value1 0.252 0.062   0.502 0.062  
Quality of life
Change in quality of life (QoL) and visual analog score (VAS)
  EQ-5D-5Lc 0.726 (0.139–0.859) 0.741 (0.169–0.870) 0.85 0.740 (0.089–0.833) 0.755 (0.291–0.838) 0.67
    EQ-5D-5L from baseline 0.038 (− 0.044–0.164) 0.064(− 0.380–0.412) 0.49 0.075(− 0.104–0.195) 0.076 (− 0.201–0.302) 0.56
   p-value1 0.162 0.362   0.362 0.202  
  VASd 65 (40–99) 70 (30–90) 0.48 80 (40–99) 75 (50–90) 0.93
    VAS from baseline 5 (− 35–69) 2 (− 30–35) 0.91 8 (− 25–69) 15 (− 9–45) 0.72
   p-value1 0.342 0.212   0.382 0.032  
  1. PP analysis: Mann-Whitney U tests
  2. I-ADL instrumental activities of daily living, P-ADL personal activity of daily living
  3. 1Fisher’s exact test
  4. 2Wilcoxon
  5. aCompletion of measurement: 30 days—intervention: n = 9/5 (WOA/WA), control: n = 10/4 (WOA/WA); 60 days—intervention: n = 6/3 (WOA/WA), control: n = 8/2 (WOA/WA). WA with armrest, WOA without armrest
  6. bFRS total score 0––100 (100 is best)
  7. cEQ-5D-5L score 1.000 to − 0.624 (1.000 is best)
  8. dVAS score 1–100 (100 best health)