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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of patients collected before randomization at the day of discharge

From: Individual nutritional intervention for prevention of readmission among geriatric patients—a randomized controlled pilot trial

Group Intervention, n = 21 Control, n = 19
Age, years, median (range) 79 (66–92) 74 (65–94)
Female, n (%) 11 (52%) 7 (37%)
BMI, kg/m2, median (range) 26.6 (21.1–37.2) 26.1 (17.2–34.7)
Living alonea, n (%) 12 (57%) 6 (32%)
Nutritional risk, ≥ 3 point at secondary screening, n (%) 10 (48%) 11 (58%)
Admission diagnosis, n (%)
 COPD in exacerbation 7 (33%) 6 (32%)
 Infection (UTI, pneumonia without COPD, etc.) 6 (29%) 6 (32%)
 Dyspnoea/respiratory failure (without COPD) 4 (19%) 0 (0%)
 Pain 0 (0%) 3 (16%)
 Diarrhea/gastroenteritis 1 (5%) 2 (11%)
 Others 3 (14%) 2 (11%)
Hospital, length of stay, days, median (range) 6 (2–16) 4 (3–29)
Admissions the last year before inclusion, number, median (range) 0 (0–8) 0 (0–4)
Diagnosis, number, median (range) 4 (2–7) 4 (2–10)
Drugs
 Drugs, number, median (range) 11 (4–19) 12 (2–20)
 Drugs compliancea, good, n (%) 21 (100%) 19 (100%)
Nutrition and rehabilitation during hospitalization and status at discharge, n (%)
 Dietician during hospitalization 1 (5%) 0 (0%)
 ONS prescription issued by medical ward 2 (10%) 2 (11%)
 Plan for rehabilitations 6 (29%) 6 (32%)
 Dysphagiaa 0 (0%) 0 (0%)
 Nausea, diarrhea, constipation, vomittinga 4 (19%) 6 (32%)
Social services, n (%)
 Home-servicesa,b 8 (38%) 8 (42%)
 Meals-on-wheelsa 4 (19%) 1 (5%)
Nutritional status
 Weight, kg, median (range) 71.7 (52.4–111.0) 73.1 (48.6–107.4)
 Energy requirement, kJ, median (range) 8000 (5700–11,100) 8500 (5400–10,700)
 Energy intake, kJ, median (range) 7500 (3500–10,500) 7100 (2600–12,700)
 ≥ 75% of energy requirement, n (%) 13 (62%) 8 (42%)
 Protein requirement, g, median (range) 92 (75–122) 99 (69–118)
 Protein intake, g, median (range) 61 (18–91) 56 (7–114)
 ≥ 75% of protein requirement, n (%) 6 (29%) 6 (32%)
Muscle strength (handgrip strength (HGS), 30-s chair stand (30-SCS))
 HGS, kg, median (range) 18 (8–44) 19 (9–42)
 30-SCS without armrest (WOA), n (%) 11(52%) 9 (47%)
 30-SCS with armrest (WA), n (%) 10 (48%) 8 (42%)
 30-SCS not possible to perform, n (%) 0 (0%) 2 (11%)
 30-SCS (WOA), number of stands, median (range) 7 (4–12) 7 (3–12)
 30-SCS (WA), number of stands, median (range) 4.5 (1–6) 6.5 (2–11)
Functional Recovery Score (FRS), median (range)
 FRS totalc 81 (20–100) 87 (37–100)
 Personal activities of daily living 44 (17–44) 44 (28–44)
 Instrumental activities of daily living 16 (1–23) 18 (1–23)
 Mobility 25 (0–33) 25 (8–33)
Quality of life (QoL), median (range)
 EQ-5D-5Ld 0.679 (0.183–0.863) 0.660 (–0.011–1)
 Visual analog scale (VAS)e 50 (30–95) 60 (5–100)
  1. COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, ONS oral nutritional supplement, UTI urinary tract infection
  2. aInformation from the patients
  3. bFour (19%) in the intervention group had home service every day—the rest had primary home service for cleaning twice per month
  4. cFRS total score 0–100 (100 is best)
  5. dEQ-5D-5L score 1.000 to − 0.624 (1.000 is best)
  6. eVAS score 1–100 (100 best health)