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Table 2 Means, standard deviations, and 95% paired means confidence intervals for dependent variables by group (control, experimental) and time (pre- and post-training)

From: Feasibility of using a biofeedback device in mindfulness training - a pilot randomized controlled trial

  Control
(n = 18)
Experimental
(n = 21)
95% CI for MD
State anxiety
 Pre-training 43.6 (7.3) 48.9 (12.3) − 5.3 95% CI (− 12, 1.4)
 Post-training 38.6 (8.2) 43.4 (12.0) − 4.8 95% CI (− 11.6, 2)
95% CI PMD 5 95%CI (− .1, 10) 5.5 95%CI (.8, 10.2)  
Trait anxiety
 Pre-training 51.8 (4.8) 52.3 (9.3) − .5 95% CI (− 5.4, 4.4)
 Post-training 47.3 (5.8) 49.6 (10.1) − 3.3 95% CI (− 7.8, 3.2)
95% CI PMD 4.5 95% CI (2.3, 6.7) 2.7 95% CI (.67, 4.8)  
Perceived Stress Scale
 Pre-training 24.9 (4.8) 26.1 (3.5) − 1.2 95% CI (− 3.9, 1.5)
 Post-training 20.7 (5.7) 21.7 (5.8) − 1 95% CI (− 4.7, 2.7)
95% CI PMD 4.2 95% CI (1.7, 6.8) 4.4 95% CI (2.1, 6.8)  
Difficulties in emotion regulation
 Pre-training 96.7 (22.0) 98.5 (21.6) − 1.8 95% CI (− .16, 12.4)
 Post-training 91.4 (18.3) 91.1 (18.1) .3 95% CI (− 11.5, 12.1)
95% CI PMD 5.3 95% CI (− 2.8, 13.5) 7.4 95%CI (− .19, 15)  
  1. Notes. Data are means (SD). No statistically significant differences between control and experimental group (all p’s > .05). 95% CI PMD 95% CI Mean Difference