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Table 3 Secondary outcome measures—children’s WM, attention and language skills

From: A classroom intervention targeting working memory, attention and language skills: a cluster randomised feasibility trial

Outcome measured Skill Standardised assessment
Trained task Trained WM tasks Automated Working Memory Assessment (AWMA) [46]
• A computerised assessment administered using a laptop. The children simply listen to automated instructions and provide a verbal or pointing response that is recorded by the facilitator.
• 2 subtests administered in all 6 schools (n = 60 children):
- Listening recall
- Odd one out
Trained task Phoneme awareness Preschool and Primary Inventory of Phonological Awareness (PIPA) [47]
• A standardised assessment consisting of 6 subtests for children aged 3 to 6 years 11 months
• 2 subtests trialled:
- Phoneme isolation subtest (administered in 5 schools, n = 50 children)
- Phoneme segmentation subtest (administered in 1 school, n = 10 children)
Near-transfer Untrained WM tasks Automated Working Memory Assessment (detailed above) [46]
• 4 further subtests administered in all 6 schools (n = 60 children):
- Digit recall
- Block recall
- Counting recall
- Non-word recall
Far-transfer Attention A Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment (NEPSY-II) [48]
• Includes standardised performance-based measures of attention for children under 6 years
• 2 subtests administered in all 6 schools (n = 60 children)
- Auditory attention
- Statue
Language The New Reynell Developmental Language Scales (NRDLS) [49]
• A standardised assessment for children aged between 3 and 7 years 6 months.
• Comprehension scale administered in 5 schools (n = 50 children)
Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals—Preschool (CELF-P) [50]
• A standardised assessment for 3–6 year olds that examines children’s: understanding and use of syntax (grammar/sentence structure), semantics (word meanings) and grammatical morphology (markers of grammatical relationships
• Core language subtests (n = 10) conducted in 1 school (n = 10)
Behaviour in the classroom Behaviour Rating Scale of Executive-Function—Preschool Version (BRIEF-P) [51] (n = 60)
• A standardised, validated scale completed by teachers
• Includes consisting of 63 items that can be used with children from 2 to 5 years 11 months to measure behavioural characteristics associated with executive function skills including WM
• Completed by teachers in all 6 schools (n = 60 children)
Communication skills at home Focus on Communication Outcomes Under Six–34 (FOCUS-34) [52] (n = 60)
• A checklist of children’s communication skills at home completed by parents to measure change over time
• Completed by parents in all 6 schools (n = 60 children)