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Table 6 Immediate effects on pain intensity and adverse effects for aggregated, active phototherapy, and placebo control groups

From: Determining the feasibility of a trial to evaluate the effectiveness of phototherapy versus placebo at reducing pain during physical activity for people with knee osteoarthritis: a pilot randomized controlled trial 

Visit numbera Currnet pain intensity (0 to 10) Adverse effects—number of participants reporting “yes” to the question “did you experience any adverse effects or side effects during the treatment today?”
Aggregated Active phototherapy Placebo control Active Phototherapy Placebo control
N Mean SD N Mean SD N Mean SD   
Visit 2 Pre-phototherapy 19 1.68 2.11 9 1.33 1.23 10 2.00 2.71 0 0
Post-phototherapy 19 0.84 1.30 9 0.78 1.09 10 0.90 1.52 0 0
Post-phototherapy and exercise 19 1.68 1.53 9 1.56 1.33 10 1.80 1.75 0 0
Visit 3 Pre-phototherapy 18 2.06 2.53 9 1.78 2.54 9 2.33 2.65 0 0
Post-phototherapy 18 1.22 2.05 9 1.11 2.26 9 1.33 1.94 0 0
Post-phototherapy and exercise 18 1.50 1.58 9 1.22 1.79 9 1.78 1.39 0 0
Visit 5 Pre-phototherapy 15 1.20 1.37 8 1.25 1.28 7 0.43 0.79 0 0
Post-phototherapy 15 0.40 0.74 8 0.38 0.52 7 0.00 0.00 0 0
Post-phototherapy and exercise 15 1.07 1.22 8 0.50 1.07 7 0.86 1.22 0 0
Visit 6 Pre-phototherapy 15 0.53 0.64 8 0.38 0.52 7 0.71 0.76 0 0
Post-phototherapy 15 0.33 0.82 8 0.50 1.07 7 0.14 0.38 0 0
Post-phototherapy and exercise 15 0.53 0.92 8 0.50 0.76 7 0.57 1.13 0 0
Visit 7 Pre-phototherapy 15 0.47 0.64 8 0.25 0.46 7 0.71 0.76 0 0
Post-phototherapy 15 0.13 0.35 8 0.13 0.35 7 0.14 0.38 0 0
Post-phototherapy and exercise 15 0.87 1.25 8 0.38 0.52 7 1.43 1.62 0 0
  1. aVisits 1, 4, and 8 did not include pre-post measures for pain intensity. On visits 1, 4, and 8, pain intensity was measused prior to the sensitivity to physical activity (SPA) test which resulted in an increase in pain intensity immediately prior to phototherapy for most participants. Thus, the results of visits 1, 4, and 8 could not be pooled with the results from the other visits