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Table 1 Characteristics of included studies

From: More pilot trials could plan to use qualitative data: a meta-epidemiological study

Variable Use of qualitative data, n (%) Total, n (%), 227 (100)
Yes, 92 (40.5) No, 135 (59.5)
Journal, n (%)
 PAFS 23 (25.0) 19 (14.1) 42 (18.5)
 BMJ Open 27 (29.3) 44 (32.6) 71 (31.3)
 Trials 42 (45.7) 72 (53.3) 114 (50.2)
Year of publication, n (%)
 2013 13 (14.1) 21 (15.6) 34 (15.0)
 2014 13 (14.1) 24 (17.8) 37 (16.3)
 2015 16 (17.4) 18 (13.3) 34 (15.0)
 2016 21 (22.8) 29 (21.5) 50 (22.0)
 2017 29 (31.5) 43 (31.9) 72 (31.7)
Region, n (%)
 North America 15 (16.3) 28 (20.7) 43 (18.9)
 Europe 63 (68.5) 57 (42.2) 120 (52.9)
 Rest of the world 14 (15.2) 50 (37.0) 64 (28.2)
Funding, n (%)
 Industry 25 (28.4) 27 (21.8) 52 (24.5)
 Government or private 63 (71.6) 97 (78.2) 160 (75.5)
Intervention type, n (%)
 Pharmacological 5 (5.4) 30 (22.2) 35 (15.4)
 Non-pharmacological 83 (94.6) 105 (77.8) 192 (84.6)
Feasibility outcomes (yes), n (%) 54 (58.7) 69 (51.1) 123 (54.2)
Sample size reported (yes), n (%) 91 (98.9) 129 (95.6) 220 (96.9)
Sample size, n (%)
 Small (n < 60) 45 (49.5) 98 (75.4) 143 (64.7)
 Large (n ≥ 60) 46 (50.5) 32 (24.6) 78 (35.3)
Sample size justification, n (%)ǂ
 Adequate 48 (52.7) 51 (39.2) 99 (44.8)
 Inadequate 43 (47.3) 79 (60.8) 122 (55.2)
Study participants interviewed
 Participants 33 (35.9) 33 (35.9)
 Investigators 1 (1.1) 1 (1.1)
 Staff 15 (16.3) 15 (16.3)
 Others* 12 (13.0) 12 (13.0)
  1. PAFS Pilot and Feasibility Studies, BMJ British Medical Journal
  2. *Caregivers, family members, primary physicians
  3. ǂThe minimum study sample size was 6, and the maximum was 7500