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Table 5 Tummy time per day (min), percentage of infants meeting 24-h movement guidelines (tummy time), motor development scores (AIMS), and head shape (mm)

From: Weekly group tummy time classes are feasible and acceptable to mothers with infants: a pilot cluster randomized controlled trial

  Intervention group (N = 16) Control group (N = 19) Total (N = 35) Cohen’s d
Tummy time per day in min, mean (95% CI)
 Baseline 40.0 (14.9–64.2) (n = 15) 52.4 (28.6–76.1) (n = 16) 46.0 (28.8–63.1) (n = 31) 0.3
 Post-intervention 30.3 (0.0–60.6) (n = 10) 16.6 (0.0–42.1) (n = 15) 23.5 (3.6–43.3) (n = 25) 0.5
 6 months old 51.5 (21.2–81.9) (n = 10) 59.1 (35.4–82.9) (n = 16) 55.3 (36.1–74.6) (n = 26) 0.1
Met recommendations (%)
 Baseline 53.8% (n = 15) 50.0% (n = 16) 51.9% (n = 31) 0.01
 Post-intervention 30% (n = 10) 13.3% (n = 15) 21.7% (n = 25) 0.5
 6 months old 70% (n = 10) 56.3% (n = 16) 63.2% (n = 26) 0.3
AIMS scores, mean (95% CI)
 Baseline n = 16 n = 18 n = 34  
  Prone 2.3 (1.3–3.3) 2.3 (1.4–3.3) 2.3 (1.7–3.0) 0.0
  Supine 2.4 (1.9–3.0) 2.6 (2.1–3.1) 2.5 (2.1–2.9) 0.3
  Sitting 1.0 (0.4–1.6) 1.2 (0.6–1.8) 1.1 (0.7–1.5) 0.3
  Standing 1.0 (0.7–1.3) 1.2 (1.0–1.5) 1.1 (0.9–1.3) 0.5
  Total 6.7 (4.7–8.7) 7.3 (5.4–9.2) 7.0 (5.6–8.4) 0.3
 Post-intervention n = 13 n = 18 n = 31  
  Prone 3.5 (2.5–4.6) 3.2 (2.2–4.1) 3.4 (2.6–4.1) 0.5
  Supine 3.4 (2.8–4.0) 3.6 (3.2–4.1) 3.5 (3.1–3.9) 0.5
  Sitting 1.8 (1.1–2.5) 1.4 (0.8–2.0) 1.6 (1.2–2.1) 0.7
  Standing 1.5 (1.2–1.8) 1.6 (1.3–1.8) 1.5 (1.4–1.7) 0.0
  Total 10.3 (8.0–12.5) 9.8 (7.9–11.7) 10.0 (8.6–11.5) 0.2
 6 months old n = 10 n = 17 n = 27  
  Prone 7.8 (6.6–9.0) 8.7 (7.8–9.7) 8.3 (7.5–9.0) 0.3
  Supine 6.9 (6.2–7.6) 6.9 (6.4–7.4) 6.9 (6.5–7.3) 0.1
  Sitting 5.1 (4.3–5.8) 5.3 (4.7–5.9) 5.2 (4.7–5.7) 0.1
  Standing 2.2 (1.9–2.5) 2.5 (2.2–2.7) 2.3 (2.1–2.5) 0.5
  Total 21.9 (19.4–24.5) 23.4 (21.5–25.4) 22.7 (21.1–24.3) 0.2
Head shape, mean (95% CI)
 Baseline n = 15 n = 18 n = 34  
  CDD (mm) 3.1 (2.0–4.1) 3.6 (2.6–4.5) 3.3 (2.6–4.0) 0.1
  CI (%) 81.8 (78.8–84.9) 82.6 (79.8–85.5) 82.2 (80.2–84.3) 0.1
 Post-intervention n = 12 n = 18 n = 31  
  CDD (mm) 1.7 (0.5–2.9) 3.4 (2.4–4.4) 2.5 (1.8–3.3) 0.7
  CI (%) 85.7* (82.5–88.8) 82.5 (79.6–85.3) 84.1 (82.0–86.2) 0.6
 6 months old n = 9 n = 17 n = 27  
  CDD (mm) 2.0 (0.7–3.4) 2.4 (1.4–3.4) 2.2 (1.4–3.0) 0.0
  CI (%) 84.8 (81.6–88.1) 82.8 (80.0–85.7) 83.8 (81.7–86.0) 0.2
  1. AIMS Alberta Infant Motor Scale, CDD cranial diagonal difference, CI Cranial Index; 95% CI 95% confidence interval
  2. *p = 0.012 intervention group baseline to post-intervention measures only