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Table 2 Self-reported outcomes assessed at baseline and 6-week follow-up

From: A digital decision support system (selfBACK) for improved self-management of low back pain: a pilot study with 6-week follow-up

Domain Measure Description
Pain-related disability RMDQ [21,22,23] 24 items on ability to perform everyday tasks, range 0–24, higher scores indicate higher pain-related disability
LBP intensity, average past week NRS [24] LBP intensity rated on an NRS, range 0–10, higher scores indicate higher LBP intensity
Fear-avoidance FABQ [25, 26] 5 items on LBP and physical activity, range 0–24, higher scores indicate higher fear-avoidance beliefs
Self-efficacy PSEQ [27, 28] 10 items on confidence to cope with LBP, range 0–60, higher scores indicate higher confidence
Work ability WAI [29] Single item on work ability rated on a NRS, range 0–10, higher scores indicate better work ability
Physical functioning PSFS [30, 31] Participants identify up to 2 important activities and rate the ability to perform these activities, range 0–10, higher scores indicate better functioning
Health-related QoL EQ-5D [32] 5 items (mobility, self-care, usual activities, pain/discomfort, anxiety/depression) and a 100-mm vertical VAS on health, higher scores indicate better health
Mental health PHQ-8 [47] 8 items on symptoms of depression, range 0–24, higher scores indicate higher level of depressive symptoms
Perceived stress PSS [33] 10 items on perception of stress, range 0–40, higher scores indicate higher level of perceived stress
Illness perception BIPQ [34] 8 items on perception of how LBP interferes with everyday life, range 0–80, higher scores indicate more threatening perception of LBP
No. of pain sites Pain mannequin No. of body sites with current pain, range 0–9, including the following body regions: neck, shoulders, upper back, elbows, lower back, wrists/hands, hips/thighs, knees, and ankles/feet.
Activity limitation   2 items (yes/no) on whether LBP has reduced activity during work and/or leisure
Leisure time physical activity SGPALS [35] 4 categories ranging from sedentary to regular hard physical activity
Sleep   4 items (problems falling asleep, waking up repeatedly, waking up too early, and daytime sleepiness), range 0–12, higher scores indicate more severe sleep problems
Satisfaction PASS [36] Single item on whether an acceptable symptom state has been achieved (yes/no). Assessed only at 6-week follow-up
Perceived effect GPE [37] Single item on perception of effect from the intervention, scored on balanced scale ranging from “very much worse” to “very much better.” Assessed only at 6-week follow-up
  1. RMDQ Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire, LBP low back pain, NRS numerical rating scale, FABQ fear avoidance-belief questionnaire; PSEQ pain self-efficacy questionnaire, PSFS Patient Specific Functional Scale, PSS Perceived Stress Scale, QoL quality of life; EQ-5D EuroQoL 5 dimensions, VAS visual analogue scale, BIPQ brief illness-perception questionnaire, PHQ-8 Patient Health Questionnaire, WAI work ability index, SGPALS Saltin-Grimby Physical Activity Level Scale, PASS patient acceptable symptom state, GPE global perceived effect