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Table 1 Similarities and differences between LiFE and the newly developed gLiFE format

From: Development of a conceptual framework for a group-based format of the Lifestyle-integrated Functional Exercise (gLiFE) programme and its initial feasibility testing

AimImprove balance and lower limb strength, increase physical activity, decrease risk of falling; long-term sustainability of the LiFE activities through habit formation and self-empowerment
IdeaCreate new movement habits through linking LiFE activities to specific daily situations
StructureUp to seven home visits of 1 hour; explain the LiFE principles during the first home visit, introduce the LiFE activities flexibly (1–2 balance/strength activities per session)Seven sessions of 2 hours; introduction of LiFE activities in a predetermined order
ContentLiFE principles, balance and strength activities, adapt activities to own training progress (upgrading)
PlanningPlanning (implementation intentions), theory-based behaviour change units, group discussion
TeachingFoster autonomy in choosing daily situations for implementing the LiFE activities; tailor and adapt the LiFE activities throughout the intervention phase, visualisation
InstructionFlexible procedureDetailed curriculum (gLiFE concept), trainers follow teaching methods (e.g., repetition and variation) and BCTsa, different organisational settings (mostly circle of chairs)
MaterialsLiFE assessment tool (assessment of level of difficulty in movement execution), LiFE participant’s manual
Activity counter (recording the number of performed activities), activity planner (detailed planning on when, how, and where the activities can be implemented), daily routine chart (identify suitable opportunities for implementing LiFE activities into daily routines)Workbook (including activity counter and activity planner), flipchart, posters, cardboard boxes, and towels
SettingParticipant’s homesPublic room
Trainer-participant-ratio1:11:6 (two trainers in a group of up to twelve participants)
  1. aBehaviour Change Techniques (BCTs) are the smallest identifiable parts of behaviour change interventions, mapped by Michie et al. (2011)