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Table 5 Characteristics of pre and post intervention patient populations

From: A single-site pilot implementation of a novel trauma training program for prehospital providers in a resource-limited setting

VariableCategoryTreatment group
Pre-intervention
(N = 143)
% (N) or
median (IQR)
Post-intervention (N = 95)
% (N) or
median (IQR)
Patient demographics
 Patient age 30.0 (23.0–37.0)29.0 (23.0–37.0)
 Patient genderFemale22% (31)19% (18)
Male78% (112)81% (77)
 Primary injury mechanismBlunt42% (60)44% (42)
Penetrating56% (80)56% (53)
Other2% (3)0% (0)
Vital signs and associated measures
 Systolic blood pressure from initial vital signs 110.0 (95.0–139.0)100.0 (90.0–130.0)
 Heart rate from initial vital signs 106.0 (99.0–114.0)104.0 (88.0–112.0)
 Shock stage from initial vital signsHigh (≥ 1.0)36% (51)45% (43)
Intermediate (0.7– < 1.0)51% (73)41% (39)
Normal (<0.7)13% (19)14% (13)
EMS response information
 Qualification of provider 1BLS25% (35)24% (23)
ILS41% (58)43% (41)
ALS34% (48)33% (31)
 Incident to scene arrival minutes 19.0 (12.0–37.0)22.0 (14.0–43.0)
 Scene arrival to scene departure minutes 22.0 (15.0–32.0)23.0 (14.0–31.0)
 Scene departure to hospital arrival minutes 14.0 (9.0–22.0)16.0 (12.0–24.0)
 Total prehospital minutes 61.0 (48.0–89.0)67.0 (53.0–96.0)
Clinical interventions
 Any IV is 14,16 or 18-gauge placed in AC or EJ locationsYes14% (20)13% (12)
 IV fluids administered:No46% (66)47% (45)
Yes50% (71)41% (39)
Not documented4% (6)12% (11)
 Type of fluid:Normal saline3% (2)8% (3)
Lactated Ringers96% (68)90% (35)
Not documented1% (1)3% (1)
Volume of fluid (mL): 825.0 (450.0–1000)500.0 (250.0–925.0)
Patient shock index outcomes
 Initial shock index 0.89 (0.77–1.06)0.93 (0.77–1.12)
 Last shock index 0.88 (0.74–0.97)0.87 (0.72–1.00)
 Change in shock index − 0.04 (− 0.12–0.00)− 0.05 (− 0.17–0.03)
 Meaningful change in SIMeaningfully better (<− 0.1)27% (38)34% (32)
Meaningfully worse (>0.1)8% (12)11% (10)
No meaningful change65% (93)56% (53)
  1. AC antecubital fossa, EJ external jugular, SI shock index