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Table 1 Study measures

From: Early Minds: a pilot randomised controlled trial of a mindfulness program in early learning centres

Construct Measures Time 1
Time 2
3 months post-randomisation
Time 3
12 months post-randomisation
Socio-demographic information Educator: age, number of years as an early childhood educator
Parent: family composition, parental education and age, language spoken at home, child age
Program feasibility, acceptability, and fidelity
 User experience Study-designed questions assessing use of the program, best and worst aspects of the program, continued use of the program, recommendation of the program to others  
 Evaluation of implementation Study-designed questions assessing usefulness of the program, implementation of the program, barriers to using the program, fidelity to the program, quality of training in the program, comments about the program  
 Fidelity Study-designed questions assessing daily implementation of activities undertaken by educators daily, for 8 weeks
 Knowledge and use of mindfulness theory and techniques Study-designed questions assessing previous/current training in and use of mindfulness, techniques, length of time, and frequency that they have used mindfulness techniques
Parent and educator measures
 Class climate/teacher-student relationships Adapted version of the Student–Teacher Relationship Scale short (STRS) [38, 39]: 15-item validated scale designed to assess the individual teacher-student relationship, but adapted for use with whole class (α > .80).
 Dispositional mindfulness Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale-revised (CAM-R) [40]: 12-item validated scale measuring the tendency for the respondent to be mindful in daily life, including four components of mindfulness (attention, present-focus, awareness, and acceptance). Higher scores indicate a more mindful disposition.
 Subjective wellbeing 3 items used by Smiling Mind to assess self-reported wellbeing of adults using the SM app/website [41]: Please indicate how each of the following describes your feelings when you think about your life in general? (0 = not at all, 10 = extremely)
• How happy do you generally feel?
• How content do you generally feel?
• How alert do you generally feel?
Child-related measures
 Child social/emotional behaviour Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire [42]: 25-item validated measure assessing child’s socio-emotional behaviour, including 5 scales: hyperactivity/inattention, conduct problems, emotional symptoms, peer relationship problems, and prosocial behaviour (α = .73).
 Child irritability Affective Reactivity Index [43]: 6-item validated measure assessing child irritability behaviours (e.g. the child gets angry frequently), responses range from 0 (not true) to 2 (certainly true) (α > .80).
 Child sleepiness Selected item from the Paediatric Sleep Questionnaire [44]: Does your/this child have a problem with sleepiness during the day? (yes/no/do not know)
 Child executive function Childhood Executive Functioning Inventory (CHEXI) [45]: 24-item validated measure assessing executive functioning in 4–12-year-old children. It includes 4 subscales: working memory, planning; regulation, and inhibition. Factor analysis for children in kindergarten identifies two factors—working memory (working memory and planning subscales) and inhibition (regulation and inhibition subscales) (α > .74).
 Child academic/pre-academic approaches to learning Approaches to learning questions—from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC), adapted from kindergarten through first grade parent social rating scale [46, 47]: 6 items in which parents/educators indicate how frequently the child exhibited the behaviour or characteristic relating to learning experiences. Response scales range from ‘1 = never’ to ‘4 = very often.’
 Child temperament Single item from LSAC [47]: Compared to others I think my child is… (much easier than average, average, more difficult than average, much more difficult than average, cannot say)
 Child sleep Single item from the LSAC [47]: How much is your child’s sleeping pattern or habits a problem for you? (no/small/moderate/large)
Family and parent-child outcomes
 Parent mental health Depression Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS-21) [48]: 21-item validated self-report measure, with three scales for depression, anxiety, and stress. Each scale consisting of 7 items ranging from 1 to 4 rating the extent to which the respondent had experienced each state over the past week (α > .85).
 Parent sleep quality 2 items from Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Questionnaire, modified by LSAC [47]:
• During the past month, how would you rate your own sleep quantity overall?
• During the past month, how would you rate your own sleep quality overall?
 Impact of pre-schoolers behaviour on family relationships and activities PEDS-QL Family Impact Module [49]: This measure includes 5 items assessing problems with family relationships, including communication, stress, conflicts between family members, and difficulty making decisions and solving problems as a family and 3 items assessing problems with daily activities (α > .90).