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Table 6 Observed (unadjusted) and marginal (adjusted) change scores from baseline to 4-month follow-up with 95% confidence intervals

From: GLA:D® Back: group-based patient education integrated with exercises to support self-management of persistent back pain — feasibility of implementing standardised care by a course for clinicians

  Before-group
n = 63
After-group
n = 59
GLA:D Back group
n = 78
Oswestry Disability Index (0–100) Unadjusted 1.8 (− 1.2; 4.8) 4.4 (1.7; 7.1) 6.5 (4.6; 8.4)
Adjusted 2.4 (− 0.5; 5.3) 4.8 (1.9; 7.6) 5.7 (3.3; 8.1)
Back pain intensity (0–10) Unadjusted 0.6 (−0.05; 1.3) 1.9 (1.2; 2.7) 1.2 (0.6; 1.7)
Adjusted 0.8 (0.1; 1.5) 1.4 (0.7; 2.1) 1.3 (0.7; 1.9)
Leg pain intensity (0–10) Unadjusted 0.3 (−0.4; 1.0) 0.9 (0.3; 1.6) 0.8 (0.2;1.4)
Adjusted 0.7 (0.03; 1.4) 0.7 (−0.04; 1.4) 0.7 (0.1; 1.3)
Illness perceptions (0–80) Unadjusted 2.7 (−1.2; 6.5) 3.6 (0.2; 7.1) 7.1 (4.3; 9.9)
Adjusted 4.0 (0.07; 7.9) 2.7 (−1.2; 6.7) 6.7 (3.3; 10.0)
Fear-avoidance beliefs (0–24) Unadjusted 1.3 (−0.2; 2.9) 2.3 (0.8; 3.7) 2.2 (1.0; 3.5)
Adjusted 0.8 (−0.9; 2.5) 1.8 (0.2; 3.5) 2.2 (0.7; 3.6)
Mental well-being (0–100) Unadjusted 4.7 (0.7; 8.8) 5.1 (0.2; 10.0) 7.3 (3.5; 11.1)
Adjusted 4.0 (−0.2; 8.2) 6.1 (1.9; 10.4) 7.3 (3.8; 10.9)
Back pain enablement (0–60) Unadjusted 2.9 (−0.4; 6.2) 2.8 (−0.4; 6.1) 5.9 (3.5; 8.4)
Adjusted 2.3 (−0.6; 5.2) 2.4 (−0.5; 5.4) 5.5 (3.1; 7.9)
Perceived physical fitness (0–40) Unadjusted 0.7 (−0.5; 1.8) 0.4 (−0.7; 1.5) 1.4 (0.4; 2.3)
Adjusted 0.6 (−0.6; 1.7) 0.4 (−0.6; 1.5) 1.4 (0.4; 2.3)
Abdominal endurance, seconds Unadjusted 9.0 (−0.5; 18.5)
[n = 38]
27.8 (15.8; 39.8)
[n = 17]
24.0 (16.8; 31.3)
[n = 59]
Adjusted 8.7 (−3.3; 20.7) 26.9 (11.9; 42.0) 22.3 (12.7; 31.9)
Extensor endurance, seconds Unadjusted 13.3 (−1.6; 28.2)
[n = 34]
41.9 (19.8; 65.1)
[n = 16]
43.0 (27.9; 58.0)
[n = 47]
Adjusted 9.2 (−8.5; 26.8) 41.3 (18.2; 64.4) 46.5 (32.7; 60.4)
   Proportion at follow-up, %
Impaired social functioning Unadjusted 14% 14% 18%
Adjusted 13% 15% 17%
High satisfaction Unadjusted 76% 78% 85%
Adjusted 81% 77% 85%
Pain or restricted movement in forward bending Unadjusted 33% [n = 43] 32% [n = 25] 28% [n = 67]
Adjusted 36% 31% 29%
Stopped pain medication* Unadjusted 21% 18% 44%
Adjusted 16% 17% 43%
  1. Covariates in adjusted analyses: age, gender, education, START risk group, baseline value of covariate (when collected)
  2. Before-group participants recruited prior to implementation of GLA:D Back, after-group participants recruited after the implementation
  3. *Proportion not using pain medication among patient who used pain medication at baseline