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Table 2 Patient outcome measurements

From: GLA:D® Back: group-based patient education integrated with exercises to support self-management of persistent back pain — feasibility of implementing standardised care by a course for clinicians

Construct Instrument Baseline 4 months Clinician-reported pre-intervention Clinician-reported post-intervention
Demographics Gender, age x    
Education (no qualification, vocational training, higher education < 3 years, higher education ≥ 3 years)
Work situation Job type (ordinary work, unemployed, rehabilitation, retired, student/housewife/other) x    
LBP history Pain duration (< 4 weeks, 4–12 weeks, 3–12 months, or > 1 year) x    
Previous number of episodes of back pain (0, 1, 2–3, or > 3)
Time since treatment was initiated for the current episode (< 2 weeks, 2–4 weeks, or > 4 weeks)
Number of health care visits for the current episode (1, 2–5, 6–10, or > 10)
Risk profile The START Back screening tool (low risk, medium risk, high risk of poor prognosis) [19] x    
Activity limitation Oswestry Disability Index (0–100; higher scores reflect more disability) [20, 21] x x   
Pain intensity Numeric Rating Scale 0–10 for LBP and leg pain (0 = no pain, 10 = worst imaginable pain) [22] x x   
Sick leave Number of days of sick leave in the last 3 months in those who were working (0 days, 1–14 days, or > 14days) x    
Illness perceptions The Brief Illness Perceptions Questionnaire [23, 24] (range 0–80; higher scores reflect more threatening view) x x   
Fear of movement Fear Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire, subscale: physical activity (0–24; higher scores reflect more fear-avoidance beliefs) [25, 26] x x   
Quality of life Mental wellbeing: SF-36 subscale transformed (0–100; 0 = very poor, 100 = very good) x x   
Social functioning limited by physical health: SF-36 item 6. 1 = not at all, 5 = extremely. Impaired social function defined as scores 3 (moderate) to 5 (extremely)
Self-efficacy The Back Pain Enablement Instrument (range 0–60; higher scores reflect higher sense of enablement). Modified from the Pain Enablement Instrument [27, 28] x x   
Perceived physical fitness Sum score of self-assessed strength, endurance, cardiovascular fitness, balance (range 0–40; higher scores reflect better perceived fitness) [29] x x   
Pain medication Current use of over the counter or prescribed pain medication (yes/no) x x   
Physical back performance Standing forward bending (0: did not perform; 1: performed with pain and with unusual movement; 2: performed without pain and with unusual movement; 3: performed with pain and with normal movement; 4: Performed without pain and with normal movement) [30]    x x
Trunk flexor endurance test (seconds in static flexion) [31, 32]
The Ito back extensor endurance test (seconds in static extension) [31, 33]
Active straight leg raise (0: no leg lift; 1: pain with leg lifting not disappearing with activation of abdominals; 2: pain with leg lifting that disappear with activation of abdominals; 3: no pain with leg lifting (0–2 = impaired)) [34]
Content of intervention Received listed intervention (yes/no)   x   
Advice about daily activities
Thorough information (education individually or in groups)
Exercise therapy (individually or in groups)
Manual therapy
Passive modalities or needles (e.g. laser, ultrasound, acupuncture)
Satisfaction Overall, are you satisfied with your course of care (5-point Likert)   x