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Table 1 Taxonomy of approaches to intervention development

From: Taxonomy of approaches to developing interventions to improve health: a systematic methods overview

Category INDEX team definition Defined approach Source
1. Partnership The people for whom the intervention aims to help are involved in decision-making about the intervention throughout the development process, having at least equal decision-making powers with members of the research team Co-production, co-creation, co-design, co-operative design Voorberg et al. 2015 [38]
Bessant and Maher 2009 [39]
Spencer et al. 2013 [40]
User-driven Kushniruk and Nøhr 2016 [25]
Experience-based co-design (EBCD) and accelerated EBCD Robert et al. 2013 [41]
Locock et al. 2014 [42]
2. Target population-centred Interventions are based on the views and actions of the people who will use the intervention Person-based Yardley et al. 2015 [17]
User-centred Erwin and Krishnan 2016 [44]
Erwin and Krishnan 2016 [45]
Erwin 2015 [43,44,45]
Human-centred design Norman 2013 [33]
3. Theory and evidence-based Interventions are based on combining published research evidence and formal theories (e.g. psychological or organisational theories) or theories specific to the intervention MRC Framework for developing and evaluating complex interventions MRC Guidance [7, 15]
Behaviour change wheel (BCW) Michie et al. 2014 [26]
Intervention mapping (IM) Bartholomew Eldredge et al. 2016 [27]
Matrix Assisting Practitioner’s Intervention Planning Tool (MAP-IT) Hansen et al. 2017 [32]
Normalisation process theory (NPT)a Murray et al. 2010 [46]
Theoretical domains framework (TDF) French et al. 2012 [47]
4. Implementation-based Interventions are developed with attention to ensuring the intervention will be used in the real world if effective Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, Maintenance (RE-AIM) RE-AIM.org [48]
5. Efficiency based Components of an intervention are tested using experimental designs to determine active components and make interventions more efficient Multiphase optimization strategy (MOST) Collins et al. [49]
Multi-level and fractional factorial experiments Chakraborty 2009 [50]
Dziak et al. 2012 [50, 51]
Micro-randomisation trials Klasnja et al. 2015 [52]
6. Stepped or phased based Interventions are developed through emphasis on a systematic overview of processes involved in intervention development Six essential Steps for Quality Intervention Development (6SQUID) Wight et al. 2015 [28]
Five actions model Fraser and Galinsky 2010 [29]
Fraser et al. 2009 [24, 29]
Obesity-Related Behavioural Intervention Trials (ORBIT) Czajkowski et al. 2015 [34]
7. Intervention-specific An intervention development approach is constructed for a specific type of intervention Digital (e.g. Integrate, Design, Assess and Share (IDEAS)) Mummah et al. 2016 [30]
Horvarth et al. 2016 [30, 53]
Patient decision support or aids Elwyn et al. 2011 [31]
Coulter et al. 2013 [31, 54]
Group interventions Hoddinott et al. 2010 [55]
8. Combination Existing approaches to intervention development are combined Participatory Action Research based on theories of Behaviour Change and Persuasive Technology (PAR-BCP) Janols and Lindgren 2017 [56]
  1. aCould be considered under implementation based approaches to intervention development because the theory is about implementation