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Table 2 Possible research methods for user testing

From: Designing for implementation: user-centered development and pilot testing of a behavioral economic-inspired electronic health record clinical decision support module

User testing methods Description Predicted frequency and time point
Key informant interviews Semi-structured interviews with individual or small group (2–3) experts in primary care, geriatrics, EHR, diabetes, and other relevant fields 6–8 informants, 1–2 interviews each
Group interviews Semi-structured interviews with groups of 4–6 clinicians Pre- and post vanguard
“Ride along” observation Individual observation session of clinician interaction with EHR real time, in situ 6–8 sessions per vanguard and pilot
Think-aloud usability testing [53] Individual observations in “lab” of clinicians verbalizing all thoughts as they interact with the module following a carefully scripted series of EHR tasks 4–6 observations as needed in pilot
Near live [50, 53, 55] Individual observations in “lab” of clinicians interacting with simulated data and patient actors to realistically model clinical use of module 4–6 observations as needed in pilot
Live [51, 56] Individual observations of clinicians in situ using the tool in actual patient care 3 observations as needed in pilot