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Table 1 Summary of the outcomes collected during the General Practice Pharmacist intervention

From: Supporting prescribing in Irish primary care: protocol for a non-randomised pilot study of a general practice pharmacist (GPP) intervention to optimise prescribing in primary care

  Definition Data Sources & Measurement
Main Study Outcomes (anonymised practice-level data collected throughout six-month intervention)
 Demographics
  Patient age Age in years Patient health record
  Gender Male, Female, Other Patient health record
  Patient status Eligibility for free general practice care Patient health record
 Primary Outcomes
  Patients eligible for review Number and proportion of patients with polypharmacy presenting for repeat prescriptions per day Patient health record
Pharmacist data collection tool
  Medicines reviews Number of reviews undertaken Pharmacist data collection tool
  Repeat medications Number and proportion of repeat medications currently prescribed per patient reviewed Patient health record
Pharmacist data collection tool
  Polypharmacy Number and proportion of patients (who request a repeat prescription during the intervention period) with polypharmacy (≥10 repeat medicines) Patient health record
Pharmacist data collection tool
  Medicines stopped, started and dose alterations Number and proportion of medicines stopped, started and altered per patient reviewed Pharmacist data collection tool
  High risk prescribing and potentially inappropriate prescribing Number and proportion of instances considered to be high risk or potentially inappropriate Patient health record
• High risk prescribing indicators
• Modified STOPP/START criteria from OPTI-SCRIPT and SPPiRE
  Deprescribing Number and proportion of episodes of deprescribing per patient reviewed Pharmacist data collection tool
  Generic prescribing Proportion of generic prescribing per practitioner Pharmacist data collection tool
  Use of Medicines Management Programme preferred drug and prescribing and cost guidance recommendations Number and proportion of patients with Medicines Management Programme preferred drug per item prescribed per patient reviewed Pharmacist data collection tool
  Adverse drug reactions Number of adverse drug reactions that caused withdrawal of prescribed medication(s) Patient health record
Pharmacist data collection tool
  Inadequate prescription instructions Number of prescriptions with inadequate instructions (e.g. ‘as directed’) Patient health record
Pharmacist data collection tool
  Specific instances of high risk prescribing and potentially inappropriate prescribing Number and proportion of the following instances:
• Long-term use (i.e. >3 months) of non-steroidal anti‐inflammatory drug
• Therapeutic duplication
• Long terms use (i.e. >3 months) of corticosteroids (e.g. prednisolone) without bisphosphonate
Patient health record
Pharmacist data collection tool
Nested PROM Study Outcomes (patient-level data collected during months four and five, pseudo-anonymised until follow-up complete)
 Demographics
  Patient age Age in years Self-report
Patient health record
  Gender Male, Female, Other Self-report
Patient health record
  Marital status Current marital status at time of baseline questionnaire Self-report
  Ethnicity Country in which patient was born Self-report
  Education Highest level of education achieved at time of baseline questionnaire Self-report
  Socioeconomic status Eligibility for free general practice care and deprivation level of electoral division wherein patient resides and their occupation Eligibility for free general practice care will be based on self-report and confirmed by patient health record. Deprivation level of electoral division wherein patient resides classified according to Small Area Health Research Unit National Deprivation index. Occupation will be coded with Central Statistics Office occupational categories.
  Health related Quality of life [33] Health related Quality of life five level questionnaire Self-report
  Patients' attitudes towards deprescribing [34] Patients’ Attitudes Towards Deprescribing questionnaire Self-report
  Treatment burden (unpublished) Treatment Burden Questionnaire Self-report
  Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire [35] Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire Self-report
  Number of repeat medications Number of repeat medications currently prescribed Patient health record
  High risk prescribing and potentially inappropriate prescribing Number and proportion of instances considered to be high risk or potentially inappropriate Patient health record
• High risk prescribing indicators
• Modified STOPP/START criteria from OPTI-SCRIPT and SPPiRE
 Healthcare utilization
  GP Visits Number of GP visits Patient health record
  A&E visits Number of A&E visits Patient health record
Self-report
  Hospital admissions (emergency and elective) Number and rate of admissions
Length of stay in days (if admitted)
Time to first admission and time to re-admission (days)
Patient health record
Self-report
  Practice nurse visits Number of practice nurse visits Patient health record
Self-report
  Other primary care visits Number of visits to other primary care services and identification of those services Patient health record
Self-report
  Out-patient department visits Number of visits to out-patient department services Patient health records
Self-report
 Cost Data
  Healthcare utilization As outlined in the ‘Healthcare utilisation’ section above Patient health records
Self-report
  Patient costs Travel
Occupation
Self-report
  Staff costs Costs related to the recruitment and training of the pharmacist
Practice-based education of GPs and associated staff also taken into account
Costs per hour (for GP/nurse/secretary input) and per day for pharmacist (use Health Service Executive pay grades for each grade of staff)
  Medication costs Price for drugs supplied through the community drug schemes are listed in the reimbursement files of the Primary Care Reimbursement Service Primary Care Reimbursement Service reimbursement files
 Process Evaluation Data
  Key stakeholder opinions Stakeholder perspectives Qualitative interview transcripts