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Table 2 Mechano-biological descriptors of resistance exercise stimuli

From: Unsupervised progressive elastic band exercises for frail geriatric inpatients objectively monitored by new exercise-integrated technology—a feasibility trial with an embedded qualitative study

  LE level 1 LE level 2 LE level 3 UE level 1 UE level 2 UE level 3
Load magnitude 10–12 RM 10–12 RM 10–12 RM 10–12 RM 10–12 RM 10–12 RM
Number of repetitions 10 10 10 10 10 10
Number of sets 3/leg 3/leg 3 3 3 3
Rest in between sets (minutes) 2 2 2 2 2 2
Number of exercise interventions (days) Every day Every day Every day Every day Every day Every day
Duration of the experimental period (days) During hospitalization During hospitalization During hospitalization During hospitalization During hospitalization During hospitalization
Fractional and temporal distribution of the contraction modes per repetition and duration (seconds) of one repetition Concentric:
3 s
Isometric:
2 s
Eccentric:
3 s
Concentric:
3 s
Isometric:
2 s
Eccentric:
3 s
Concentric:
3 s
Isometric:
2 s
Eccentric:
3 s
Concentric:
3 s
Isometric:
2 s
Eccentric:
3 s
Concentric:
3 s
Isometric:
2 s
Eccentric:
3 s
Concentric:
3 s
Isometric:
2 s
Eccentric:
3 s
Rest in between repetitions (seconds) No No No No No No
Time-under- tension (seconds) 8 s/rep
80 s/set
420 s/total/leg
8 s/rep
80 s/set
420 s/total/leg
8 s/rep
80 s/set
420 s/total
8 s/rep
80 s/set
840 s/total
8 s/rep
80 s/set
840 s/total
8 s/rep
80 s/set
420 s/total
Volitional muscular failure Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Range of motion Knee 0°–90° flexion Knee 0°–90° flexion Knee 0°–90° flexion Elbow 0°–180° flexion Elbow 0°–180° flexion Elbow 0°–180° flexion
Recovery time in between exercise sessions (hours) 24 h 24 h 24 h 24 h 24 h 24 h
Anatomical definition of the exercise (exercise form) Supine in bed. Elastic band under foot, arms fixated across chest. A knee extension is executed with first one then the other leg. Sitting on a chair. Elastic band under foot, arms fixated by the armrest. A knee extension is executed with first one then the other leg. Standing with hip width between the legs. Elastic band under both feet. Elastic band is held stretched with the arms across the chest. A chair is placed behind the patient. The patient gets up and sits down without touching the seat. Supine in bed. Elastic band around headboard. The elastic band is held with both hands and pulled with the arms from a position in front of the body till behind the body. Sitting on a chair with face against the headboard. Elastic band around headboard. Patient holds the elastic band with both hands and pulls the elastic band with the arms from a position in front of the body till behind the body. Standing with the face against the headboard. Elastic band around headboard. Patient holds the elastic band with both hands and pulls the elastic band with the arms from a position in front of the body till behind the body.
  1. Left row: The 13 mechano-biological descriptors of resistance exercise stimuli. The six right-sided rows: The description of the lower extremity (LE) and upper extremity exercises (UE) divided into three levels of progression [23]