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Table 1 Activities relevant to applying the person-based approach at each stage of intervention development and early evaluation

From: The person-based approach to enhancing the acceptability and feasibility of interventions

Stage of intervention development and evaluation Specific person-based approach activities useful at each stagea Other activities relevant to person-based approach normally undertaken as part of intervention development
1. Intervention planning • Synthesise previous qualitative studies of user experiences of similar interventions
• Carry out qualitative research to elicit user views of the planned behaviour changes and intervention (including relevant previous experience, barriers and facilitators)
• Consult experts and stakeholders (e.g. members of user groups, practitioners, purchasers of healthcare services)
• Examine relevant theory and evidence from previous trials
• Observe real-life context of intended intervention
2. Intervention design • Use themes arising from the intervention planning stage to identify key issues, needs and challenges the intervention must address
• Create guiding principles, comprising:
a) Key intervention design objectives
b) Key distinctive features of the intervention needed to achieve objectives
• Carry out intervention mapping of behavioural determinants and behaviour change techniques
• Create logic model describing hypothesised mechanisms of action of intervention
3. Intervention development and evaluation of acceptability and feasibility • Elicit and observe user reactions to every intervention element (e.g. using think-aloud techniques), iteratively modifying intervention to optimise acceptability and feasibility
• Carry out detailed longitudinal mixed methods case studies of independent intervention usage
• Develop detailed procedures for intervention plus information/advice, manuals, scripts, training, etc. for patients and/or health professionals
• Pilot intervention using mixed methods to evaluate acceptability and feasibility
  1. aNote that these activities may be carried out iteratively, concurrently or in a different order, not all these activities will be necessary or possible to undertake for every intervention, and this is not intended as an exhaustive list of the types of mixed methods research that could be useful